The Living Computer Museum opened October 2012 in Seattle, WA. Unlike most museums that strive to preserve artifacts how they find them, usually broken and powered off, this museum keeps their machines alive. They’re in working condition, complete with the strangely beautiful sounds of teletypes, Disk ][ drives, paper tape, and raised-floor cooling. The museum is the vision of Paul Allen, co-founder of Microsoft. Allen cut his teeth on PDP minicomputers, and the museum’s collection reflects this but has a growing display of personal computers. I know little about the PDP series and vintage of machine, but I found the museum irresistibly fascinating and essential for everybody interested in computers.
I visited the museum last year shortly after its opening, and you may read my full report in Juiced.GS (Volume 17, Issue 4). And, yes, I should’ve posted this a year ago, but I somehow left the post as a draft … in my defense, it’s only a single-bit memory error.
KansasFest came and went in a flurry of sleepless excitement. Among other things, we had a great keynote from Randy Wigginton, a surprise visit from Mr. Wozniak, and an Apple I. I particularly enjoyed seeing the amazing, creative, and unbelievable things people are doing with their Apple IIs.
A+ May 1998
Compared to today, computer networking in 1984 was heterogeneous, and compatibility between two systems from different vendors was unlikely. Every vendor developed their own proprietary and incompatible solution to networking, including file sharing and print sharing. Apple joined the foray with AppleTalk, a low cost and easy to operate networking system, with an announcement in 1984 and a release in 1985. Initially, AppleTalk supported the Macintosh. Soon, the Apple IIgs and the Apple Workstation Card brought AppleTalk to the Apple II line. AppleTalk remained Apple’s answer to networking for about 10 years, and support for parts of AppleTalk persisted in OSX until 2009.
I presented an introduction to AppleTalk and the related LocalTalk link layer at KansasFest, and you may download my presentation here.
Ever wonder what the comforting buzz of your modem is trying to say? I certainly do, and a fantastic picture and post from Oona Räisänen sheds some light on this.
One of the advantages of traveling is finding the “best of the best” and not being restricted to one city. Of course, it’s never easy finding the best stuff and having it match my travel schedule. Yesterday, I attended the “Drawing the Electric Synth with Sam Jacoby from MIT” class at SparkFun Electronics in Boulder, CO. I’m not terribly interested in electronic music, but why not give it a try …
… and, I had a blast. Sam proved to be an excellent and knowledgeable instructor with a clever and fascinating ideas. In the morning, he walked us through making speakers from bits of wire, paper, glue, and magnets – a great project for building hands-on skills and showing how it’s possible to build your own technology with a tiny bit of knowledge. Most of us just buy completed speakers or headphone and treat them as black-boxes, never to be disassembled or questioned. Sam showed us that speakers are simple technology well within the grasp of anybody. In the afternoon, we built the “electric synth.” The exercise was less about the music than about creative use of conductive inks to draw circuits and embed microcontrollers. I “colored outside the lines” and made my synth into a pyramid with the speaker on a paper spring. This construction technique, while imperfect since the inks tend to be difficult to place precisely and can be brittle, is powerfully simple. Anybody who can draw a line can build a circuit and harness technology in interesting, interactive, artistic ways.
Thanks to Sam Jacoby and the SparkFun staff for a good day.
Eletric synth with conductive inks on paper
Eletric synth with conductive inks on paper
David Greelish recently posted an interesting interview with Alan Kay, a visionary behind the modern graphical user interface. Interestingly, Kay argues that modern computers fall far short of the original vision and potential.
For all media, the original intent was “symmetric authoring and consuming”.
So much of our culture is about consumption. In some ways, the Apple II was more inline with Kay’s vision. At least with the Apple II, the machine was open and programmable out of the box. With an iPad, Apple might grant you the privilege of creating content (“apps”) if you ask nicely and pay. Related, Kay is talking about sharing and growing substantive ideas. Pick your favorite social media site – on one hand, these sites make it easy to contribute and even easier to consume. On the other hand, there’s very little substance to the content. The “ideas” that Kay discusses are painfully absent from the latest cat photo.
“Science requires a society because even people who are trying to be good thinkers love their own thoughts and theories — much of the debugging has to be done by others.”
There’s a growing “maker” culture where these ideas appear to be growing. Increasingly, people want to “make it themselves” and share rather than merely consume. Mainstream products like the iPad haven’t, in my opinion, caught on to this yet, but there’s potential. It will be interesting to see what happens; the “maker” ideas potentially have a huge impact on culture, education, and economy.
The KIM-1 was an early single-board computer that helped introduce the “masses” to micro-computing with the MOS 6502 processor. MOS built and distributed the KIM-1, presumably to help sell more microprocessors. Briel Computing has recreated the KIM-1 with the MicroKIM. I built a MicroKIM at KansasFest last summer. The kit was a blast to build. Although more complex than other kits I’ve built, the build went smoothly and produced a working MicroKIM on the first try. Vince Briel has done a nice job of producing a reliable, straightforward, and fun kit. I look forward to getting the RAM and I/O expansion boards.
The MicroKIM appeals to me because it is a self-contained single-board computer (SBC). I don’t need a monitor or keyboard to use the board – the inbuilt hexadecimal keypad and 6 seven-segment displays are adequate to use and program the system. Of course, most folks will want a terminal with a keyboard and display after a few minutes with a comparatively limited keypad and seven-segment outputs. But, I find the self-contained nature and self-sufficiency of SBCs like the MicroKIM or KIM-1 appealing.
I do wish the the MicroKIM had a wider power input range. Off-the-shelf adapters that provide the ideal input voltage, about 8 VDC, are difficult to find. As is, the MicroKIM uses a 7805 regulator, which requires a minimum of 7.5 VDC and is inefficient at higher voltages. I wish the board used an LDO regulator, with a lower minimum input requirement, or a more efficient switching supply. This isn’t a big issue – rather, it’s an annoyance that kept me from using the MicroKIM while I searched for a suitable supply.
So, what shall I do with a MicroKIM? I want to follow Mr. Loofbourrow’s lead and build a robot. Unfortunately, this project requires more time and space than I have right now. I’m thinking a simple RPN calculator would be fun and instructive. Any other ideas?
I’m pleased to announce the release of my board support package for the MiniRoboMind (MRM). The MRM is a single-board computer based on the 68332 micro-controller and is the heart of BlueBot. I found software support for the MRM to be scattered and incomplete, so I wrote my own with inspiration from existing software.
I’ve decided to release my library as-is based on some discussions on the Yahoo Robominds mailing list.
My library is far from complete. It does not support all the hardware or options available. However, it “works for me” and will grow over time. At the moment, you’ll find support for the following:
- Analog-to-digital hardware
- Atomic operations
- Exception handling and decoding
- GPIO via the SIM
- HD44780 LCD
- QSM SCI, for 9600 8N1
- QSM SPI, for certain options and message sizes
- Periodic timer
- PWM via the TPU QOM function
- TPU UART, for 9600 8N1
- Newlib, including printf()
Some code, noted in the comments, is copyright Cygnus Support. Otherwise, I wrote the code and retain copyright. Code I wrote is licensed under GNU GPL v3.
My support library requires GCC 4 built as a cross-compiler targeting M68K with Newlib. Have fun!
Download the code here.
I recently visited the American Computer Museum in Bozeman, MT, which includes exhibits like an Apple I, assorted Apple IIs and Macs, two models of Altair systems, a PDP-8S, an IMSAI, electronic and mechanical calculators, many personal computers, and a Minuteman missile guidance computer. Check out my photos here.
What does it take to interface the F18A, a modern FPGA-based clone of the venerable TM9918A Video Display Processor (VDP), to an Apple II? Short answer: not much. Here’s the long answer.
Let’s start with analyzing the design of the E-Z Color Graphics Interface, a TMS9918A-based “sprite board” with the design published in the August 1982 issue of Byte. Examine the schematic in Figure 4.
There are six major sections of the circuit:
- The TMS9918A VDP
- The clock generation circuit
- Video memory
- Video output
- Bus interfacing
- Decoupling capacitors
The F18A includes the functions of sections 1 through 4. So, with only one F18A, a few capacitors, and a single 74LS00 (for the bus interface), we’ll have a working sprite board for the Apple II. Sounds like a job for SuperProto.